Mudslides in Machu Picchu
E l 2005, an avalanche destroyed part of the railway that leads from Cusco to Machu Picchu, stranding hundreds tourists. Before that, in 2004, two massive avalanches of mud at the end of the rainy season hit town of Aguas l Hot, where at least six local people died and stranded many tourists during the Easter weekend. A part of the railway that annually takes hundreds of thousands of tourists to the famous Inca ruins was damaged, although normal rail service to and from Ccosco reopened two days later . Although the heavy rains were unusual, the dangers of traveling during the rainy season as well as the basic infrastructure of the city and its lack of preparation to handle the growth of tourism in recent years stand out.
AGUAS CALIENTES (MACHU PICCHU PUEBLO)
Renowned Machu Picchu Pueblo by the Peruvian government, a name adopted by almost anyone – Waters Hot is, literally, the end of the line, a gringo post backpackers (backpackers) equipped with the latest fashion of alpacas and indigenous fabrics designed to motivate your purchase . Hats, gloves, sweaters .
And making a small Kathmandu from Peru, hikers spend a few days after their big trip to Machu Picchu, sharing beers and stories, and scoring a hat or scarf woven final to take home as a trophy. To be honest, there is not much to do in Waters Hot , what could be called Aires Hot , given its heat and suffocating humidity. The city has bathrooms thermal , or outdoor thermal baths, the source of the name of the city, which are in 10 minutes of rise .
Many visitors find them somewhat hygienically challenged , but they are popular with people who have completed the Inca Trail and desperately need muscle relaxation (not to mention a bath). The only pool with hot water from the mountain can be tremendously restorative if you just finished a long day at the ruins. The springs are open from 5 am to 9 pm , be sure to leave your valuables locked in the hotel. Adventurous types who are not yet exhausted by climbing may wish to climb the sacred mountain Putukusi , It has distant and extraordinary views across the river to the ruins of Machu Picchu.
To get to the ruins of Machu Picchu you start the trail on the right side of the railway just outside the city. (A sign indicates KM 111.) Go right down the stone steps and get ready for an athletic feat, fighting up the vertical stairs until you reach a clearing and a series of zigzags carved in stone. At the top, Machu Picchu is found as an architectural model between its two famous peaks. The walk lasts about 75 minutes; the descent takes 45 minutes. Look through the valley in the ancient Inca city, There is no price. Although they have repaired the road and have fixed the missing steps, it is still mainly for fit climbers. Another good path, particularly for birdwatchers, is the short path to Mandor , a waterfall that is there. From the train tracks, walk downstream. A short climb takes you to the waterfall.
Bingham , the “discoverer” of Machu Picchu
Hiram Bingham is credited with the “scientific discovery” of Machu Picchu, but, in fact, when he stumbled upon the ruins with the help of a farmer local, he did not know what he had found. Bingham , an archaeologist and historian from Yale University , had come to Peru to learn more and investigate about a legendary lost Inca city. He led an archaeological expedition to Peru in 1911, sponsored by Yale University and the National Geographical Society. Bingham was looking for Vilcabamba , the final refuge of the Inca dry Manco Cápac and his children, who retired there after the site of Cusco in 1537.
From Cusco, Bingham and his team left for the jungle through the Urubamba Valley. The group met with an important Inca site, which they named Patallacta , ruins near the beginning of the Inca Trail. A week in the expedition, in Mandorpampa near the now known town of A Guas Hot, Bingham met Melchor Arteaga, a local farmer, who told Bingham the mysterious ruins high in the mountains on the other side of the river and offered to guide the expedition towards them.
In the rain, the two climbed the steep mountain. Despite the time elapsed , the ruins were not completely covered with weeds; a small number of farmers I cultivated among them. In The Lost City of the Incas, Bingham writes: “Soon I found myself before the ruins of the walls of buildings built with some of the best stones of the Incas. It was difficult to see them since they were partially covered by trees and moss, the growth of centuries; but in the dense shade, hidden in bamboo bushes and vines, here and there walls of white granite ashlars were carefully cut and exquisitely joined . . . I was really breathless. ”
Bingham was convinced that he had discovered the strength of the Inca rebel, Vilcabamba. Nevertheless, it was known that Vilcabamba It had been built hastily, and Machu Picchu clearly was no more than that, and most of the stories had it lying much deeper in the jungle. In addition, it is known that the Spanish sacked Vilcabamba , and there is no evidence that Machu Picchu has suffered an attack. Despite these contradictions, Bingham’s pronouncement was accepted for more than 50 years. The same name should have been a relevant gift.
Vilcabamba means “sacred plain” in Quechua, hardly a description that would be attributed to Machu Picchu, located high in the mountains. In 1964, the American explorer Gene Savoy discovered what is now accepted as the true ruins of Vilcabamba , in Spirit Pampa, a walk of several days through the jungle. Interestingly, it seems certain that Hiram Bingham had once encountered a small section of Vilcabamba , but discarded the ruins as minors.
The ruins of Machu Picchu were excavated by a Bingham team in 1915. A railroad from Cusco to Waters Calientes, started two years before, was finally completed in 1928. The road to the hillside of the ruins, inaugurated by Bingham himself, was completed in 1948. Bingham died still believing that Machu Picchu was Vilcabamba , even though he had discovered something very old and more mysterious.
Bingham took more than 10,900 photos of Machu Picchu on his second visit in 1912 and finally collected more than 45,000 artifacts to study in the United States (with the permission of the Peruvian government under the agreement that they would be returned to Peru when there would be a suitable place for its storage and continuous study . Peru states that the agreement was for 18 months, but many of the objects so far have remained in the Peabody Museum at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. for almost a century.
In 2003, an itinerant exhibition was organized in the United States, and after years of negotiations and threats of lawsuits, Yale and the Peruvian government finally reached an agreement that recognizes Peru as the title of the artifacts.
About 400 museum-quality Bingham artifacts were returned to Peru, and some items will remain at Yale to continue the investigation. Under the agreement, Yale will help Peru organize an international itinerant exhibition.
The best view of Machupicchu
After passing through the entrance, you can go to the left and up the hill, or to the right. The road on the left takes you to the place that is on the ruins, near the caretaker’s cabin and the funerary rock 1 that offers a general view of the classic postcard of Machu Picchu. If you’re here early enough torque at dawn this is the first favorite place to visit, from 6: 0 0 am.
The cabin overlooks rows and rows of steep agricultural terraces, usually with some llamas grazing nearby . In the morning, you may see exhausted groups of hikers arriving several days and nights on the Inca Trail. Most arrive at dawn to receive their reward, a festive dawn. From this point of view, you can clearly see the complete distribution of Machu Picchu, which had defined agricultural and urban areas; A long dry pit 2 separates the two sectors. Perhaps a population of 1,000 lived here at the highest point of Machu Picchu.
OUTSTANDING RUINS WITHIN MACHUPICCHU
After passing through the entrance, you can go to the left and up the hill, or to the right. The road to the left takes you to the place that is on the ruins, near CARETAKER’S HUT and FUNERARY ROCK 1 , offers a general view of the classic postcard of Machu Picchu. If you are here early enough for the sunrise (6: 30-7: 30am), do it first. The cabin overlooks rows and rows of steep agricultural terraces (usually with some llamas grazing nearby).
In the morning, you may see exhausted groups of hikers arriving several days and nights on the Inca Trail. (Most arrive at dawn to receive their reward, a festive dawn.) From this point of view, one can clearly see the complete distribution of Machu Picchu, which had defined agricultural and urban areas; a long DRY MOAT 2 , separates the two sectors. Perhaps a population of 1,000 lived here at the highest point of Machu Picchu. Go to the main section of the ruins, pass a series of cemeteries and homes and MAIN ENTRANCE TO THE CITY 3 , A section of stones, probably a QUARRY 4 , sits on a clearing with occasional great views of the snowy peaks (Cordillera Vilcabamba ) in the distance (looking southwest). Below, a steep staircase is one of the most famous Inca buildings, the TEMPLE OF SUN 5 , also called Torreón.
The rounded and sharp tower has an extraordinary masonry, the most refined of Machu Picchu: its large stones fit perfectly. From the ledge above the temple, you can see the window perfectly aligned for the winter solstice of June, when the sun’s rays filter at dawn and illuminate the stone in the center of the temple. The temple is cordoned off, and entry is not allowed. Below the temple, in a cave carved into the rock, is a section traditionally called the ROYAL TOMB 6 , although no human remains have been found there. Inside there is a meticulously carved altar and a series of niches that produce intricate morning shadows.
To the north, just below the stairs that divide this section of a series of homes called ROYAL SECTOR , there is a water channel that still works and a series of interconnected sources. 7. The main source is distinguished by its size and excellent stonework. Climbing the stairs to the top of the ruins (north of the quarry) is the main ceremonial area.
The Temple of the Three Windows 8, each extraordinarily trimmed trapeze with views of the daring Andes in the distance through the Urubamba gorge, is likely to be one of your enduring images of Machu Picchu. It is in front of one side of Sacred Plaza 9. On the left, if you are facing the Temple of the Three Windows, there is Main Temple 0, which has master masonry in its three high walls. Directly opposite is the Casa del Priest! Just behind the Main Temple is a small cell, called the Sacristy, famous for its exquisite masonry. It is a good place to examine how amazingly these stones of many angles (one to the left of the jamb of the door has 32 different angles) were assembled by the Inca stonemasons.
Going up a short flight of stairs is the Intihuatana , popularly known as the “pole of the sun”. It seems to be a carved ritual rock or a kind of sundial, and its shape resembles that of the sacred peak Huayna Picchu beyond the ruins. The stone almost certainly functioned as an astronomical and agricultural calendar (useful for judging the alignment of constellations and solar events and, therefore, the seasons). It seems to be strongly connected to the mountains in all directions.
The Incas built similar monuments in other parts of the empire, but most were destroyed by the Spaniards (who surely thought they were instruments of pagan worship). The Machu Picchu survived perfectly for almost 5 centuries until 2001, when a camera crew slipped into a 1,000-pound crane, which fell and splintered the top of the Intihuatana . Follow a path that goes down terraces and pass a small square to a dusty clear # with stone benches covered on each side.
Opposite the square is a huge Sacred Rock , sculpted, whose shape imitates the Putukusi , the sacred peak that rises eastward through the valley. This area probably served as a common area for meetings and perhaps performances. Many locals (like visitors) believe that the Sacred Rock transmits a palpable energy force; place your palms on it to see if you can touch it.
To the left of the Sacred Rock, by a path, is the gateway to Huayna Picchu, the great outcrop that serves as the dramatic backdrop of Machu Picchu. Although it seems prohibitive and is very steep, anyone can reasonably climb it. The steep path takes most visitors around an hour or more, although some athletic types ascend to the top in less than 25 minutes.
The guards at a small stand require visitors to sign in and out. Keep in mind, however, that only 400 people per day can climb; If you like to go up Huyana Picchu for the views and the exercise, arrive early. (The road is open from 7 am to 1 pm, and the first group of 200 must leave before 10 am) At the top, you will reach a kind of platform, which is what many get to see directly on the ruins .
Others who have arrived here and are committed to reach the apex continue for a few minutes, through a narrow tunnel excavated in the rock, to a rocky hanger with 360 grados.Hay space for only a handful of hikers up there, and the views are so amazing that many are tempted to hang out for hours, so newcomers may need to be patient to earn their place in the rock. The views of Machu Picchu below and the panorama of forested mountains are literally breathtaking.
The ascending Huayna Picchu is highly recommended for energy genres of any age (I have seen octogenarians climb the path in an enviable clip), but young children are not allowed. In humid weather, you may want to reconsider, because the stone steps can get slippery and become very dangerous. Go back the same way (awfully steep in a couple of points)
There is a detour to the Temple of the Moon, usually visited only by the completists Machu Picchu . The trail plunges into the cloud forest and then climbs again, and is usually deserted. Split into the rock at a point halfway up the hill and perched on the Urubamba River, it certainly was not a lunar observatory. It is a mysteriously abandoned and mysterious place of caverns, niches and enigmatic portals, with some precious stones, including carved thrones and an altar. Despite its modern name, the temple was probably used for the worship of spirit of the mountain Huayna Picchu. The road takes around 1 to 11/2 hours of round trip from the detour.
When you pass the guard post (where you will have to close the session), continue back to the main complex of Machu Picchu and enter the lower section of the ruins, separated from the upper section espiently oriented by a Central Plaza . The lower section was more prosaic in function, mainly residential and industrial. Finally , you will reach a series of cells and rooms, called the Group of Three Doors and the District of Mortar or Industrial Sector .
For some , the most interesting part of this inferior section is the Temple of the Condor . It is said to be a giant condor carving, the dark rock above symbolizes the wings of the great bird and the pale rock below clearly represents its head. You can actually crawl through the cave at the base of the rock and emerge from the other side.
In addition to the main complex, to the west of Machu Picchu, there is the Inca Bridge, built on stacked stones and overlooking a drop steep, of almost 2,000 feet. Critical for the defense of the citadel, you can reach the bridge in an easy half hour from a clearly marked narrow path. For those who have not yet been satisfied with Machu Picchu, worth it get on Intipunku (Sun Gate).
The road just below the Caseta del Cabrero 1 leads to the final step of the route used by the Inca Trail hikers to enter the ruins. The views from the entrance, with Huayna Picchu in the background, they are spectacular. Two stone doors here correspond to the most important winter and summer solstices; at that time, the sun’s rays illuminate the doors like a laser.
THE BEST ATTRACTION OF SOUTH AMERICA: MACHU PICCHU
Since its rediscovery in 1911 and the initial exploration by an American team of Yale archaeologists over the next 4 years, the ruins of Machu Picchu have echoed far beyond the simple archaeological state. Known as the legendary “lost city of the Incas”, it is full of mystery and tradition.
The unearthed complex, the only significant Inca site that escapes the voracious appetites of the Spanish conquistadors in the sixteenth century, is classified as the main attraction in Peru, possibly the largest in South America and, to the opinion of many , one of the place is most impressive in the world .
Numerous photographs have been taken of all the angles of the stone ruins, which connect the gap between two enormous Andean peaks and are wrapped in cotton-wool, it simply has no point of comparison . the glorious city of the Incas is like a dream invisible from the Urubamba valley below, Machu Picchu remained inactive for more than 4 centuries, was almost 2,400 m above sea level under the dense jungle and was known only by a small group of Amerindian peasants.
Never mentioned in the Spanish chronicles, it was apparently lost in the collective memory of the Incas and their descendants. However, the discovery of the ruins raised more questions than it answered, and experts still argue about the place that Machu Picchu occupied in the Inca Empire.
Was it a citadel? An agricultural site ? An astronomical observatory ? A ceremonial city or sacred retreat for the Inca emperor? Or some combination of all these? Adding to the mystery, this complex city of extremely fine architecture and masonry was built, inhabited and deliberately abandoned in less than a century: a simple glimpse into the history of 4,000 years of Andean Peru.
Machu Picchu was probably abandoned even before the arrival of the Spaniards, perhaps as a result of the civil war of the Incas. Or maybe it was the drought that led the Incas to another place. Machu Picchu, however, is not that lost city. Most historians believe that the Inca Pachacútec , who founded the Inca Empire and built most of the largest and most recognizable Inca monuments, built the complex sometime in the mid-15th century, probably after the broken der of a rival group in 1438.
Machu Picchu seems to have been both a ceremonial and agricultural center. Half of its buildings were sacred nature, but recent research findings indicate that it was a royal retreat for the Inca leaders rather than a holy city, po r r. Never plundered by the Spanish, many of its architectural features remain in excellent condition, even if they finally do little to advance our understanding of the exact nature of Machu Picchu. One thing is certain: Machu Picchu is one of the best examples of landscape art in the world.
The Incas venerated nature, worshiping celestial bodies and more terrestrial currents and stones. The spectacular surroundings of Machu Picchu reveal how much they delighted in their surroundings. The steep terraces, the gardens and temples of granite and limestone, the stairs and the aqueducts seem to be carved directly from the hillside. The shapes echo the shape of the surrounding mountains, and the windows and instruments seem to have been built to track the sun during the June and December solstices.
Machu Picchu is 300 meters (1,000 feet) lower than Cusco, but you would imagine exactly the opposite, so you will find the ruins between the tops of the mountains and the clouds. The ruins are cradled in the center of a radius of Andean peaks, like the pistil in the center of a flower. Appreciating Machu Picchu for its aesthetic qualities is not slight to its importance.
The Incas, obviously, chose the site because of the immense power of its natural beauty. They, like us, must have admired the snowy peaks of the east; the rugged panorama of the imposing wooded hills and the sacred cliff of Putukusi to West; and the city sitting graciously like a proud saddle between two huge hills or peaks.
Machupicchu s igue being one of the most exciting places in the world. At dawn, when the sun’s rays creep silently over the silhouette of the mountains , sometimes the distant snowy peaks turn into fiery orange trees, and then, slowly, with great drama, they cast a bright light on the ruins building row by row, enough with moving a little to observe the diverse nature that is in the area .
THE LOST CITY OF THE INCAS
The impressive city of Machu Picchu, the legendary “lost city of the Incas”, is the biggest attraction in South America , attracting an increasing number of visitors from around the world. The Incas hid Machu Picchu so high in the clouds that escaped destruction by the Spanish invaders of the empire, who never found it. It is no longer hidden , of course, you can go there by high-speed train or walk a path of 2 or 4 days, but Machu Picchu retains its aura perhaps unmatched mystery and magic.
Machupicchu and a is not covered with underbrush, as it was when it was rediscovered in 1911 by Yale archaeologist and historian Hiram Bingham with the help of a local farmer who knew of its existence, from below it is still completely hidden from view. The majestic setting that the Incas chose for him also remains unchanged: the ruins are found in the almost meditative mountains of the Andes and are often shrouded in mist. When the early morning sun rises over the peaks and methodically illuminates the ruins, row by row of granite stones.
Machu Picchu leaves visitors as admired as ever. The vast majority of visitors to Machu Picchu still visit it as a day trip from Cusco, but many people feel that a few hurried hours in the ruins during peak hours are not enough , amid crowds of people following these visits. as guided . One way to gain more time to appreciate this great citadel is to stay at least 1 night, either at the exclusive hotel on the outskirts of Machu Picchu or city d e Waters Calientes or also called Machu Picchu Pueblo , can stay in the ruins later in the afternoon after most groups of tourists have gone home, or arrive there for the sunrise.
Mudslides in Machu Picchu